Europa XXI (2022) vol. 42

The transformation of post-industrial areas and territorial aspects of Just Transition Fund implementation

Articles

Editorial: The transformation of post-industrial areas and territorial aspects of Just Transition Fund implementation

Sławomir Sitek, Marta Chmielewska

Europa XXI (2022) vol. 42, pp. 5-29 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.7

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Abstract

An introductory text discusses the Just Transition Fund’s core assumptions and origin,in the process revealing stages to the evolution of the approach taken – in the direction of ‘green economy’ assumptions. Activities financed within the framework of the Fund are identified, in respect of the restructuring of Poland’s mining regions. Examples of fields of intervention are then discussed by reference to the Terytorialny Plan Sprawiedliwej Transformacji Województwa Śląskiego 2030, i.e.the 2030 Territorial Plan for the Just Transition of Poland’s Śląskie Voivodeship, in Silesia. A particularly important aspect here is the timetable for closures of mines and conventional power plants. The material also presents selected data on the significance of mining and the extractive industries in both their social and economic dimensions. Particular attention is here paid to the labour-market consequencesof the Just Transition. The references are to levels of pay in the sector referred to, as well as the wealth characterising the relevant Polish gminas (areas of local-governmental administration) – as an alternativeway of looking at the entire process. The article also points to a large number of research aspects linking up with transitioning in the economy and requiring further study and analysis. Overall, the work points to the challenges that regions subject to restructuring are going to be faced with.

Keywords: Just Transition Fund, decarbonisation, European Green Deal, mining regions, Śląskie Voivodeship, Poland

Sławomir Sitek [slawomir.sitek@us.edu.pl], University of Silesia, Institute of Social and Economic Geography and Spatial Management Będzińska 60; 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Marta Chmielewska [marta.chmielewska@us.edu.pl], University of Silesia, Institute of Social and Economic Geography and Spatial Management Będzińska 60; 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland

Citation

APA: Sitek, S., & Chmielewska, M. (2022). Editorial: The transformation of post-industrial areas and territorial aspects of Just Transition Fund implementation. Europa XXI, 42, 5-29. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.7
MLA: Sitek, Sławomir, and Chmielewska, Marta. "Editorial: The transformation of post-industrial areas and territorial aspects of Just Transition Fund implementation". Europa XXI, vol. 42, 2022, pp. 5-29. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.7
Chicago: Sitek, Sławomir, and Chmielewska, Marta. "Editorial: The transformation of post-industrial areas and territorial aspects of Just Transition Fund implementation". Europa XXI 42 (2022): 5-29. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.7
Harvard: Sitek, S., & Chmielewska, M. 2022. "Editorial: The transformation of post-industrial areas and territorial aspects of Just Transition Fund implementation". Europa XXI, vol. 42, pp. 5-29. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.7

The place of Śląskie Voivodeship (Poland) in the greening space of flows

Julia Wójcik, Barbara Szejgiec-Kolenda, Konrad Czapiewski, Tomasz Komornicki, Miguel Ángel Almazán-Gómez

Europa XXI (2022) vol. 42, pp. 31-65 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.6

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Abstract

The study assess the position of the Śląskie Voivodeship in the European space of flows. The main objectives are: (1) to examine the regional position in the interregional space of flows, and (2) to assess this position in terms of the decarbonisation processes planned under the European Green Deal policy. In order to do this, the strengths and weaknesses of the region were identified, the flows potentially vulnerable to the restructuring process of the region's coal-based economy were recognised, and the extent and scale of the impact of decarbonisation on the region's economic situation was determined. An analysis of indicators such as intensity and concentration of flows places the region on the flow periphery, as the most significant flows are concentrated in Western and Northern Europe. One exception to this pattern is the transport of goods when measured in tonnes, which makes the region an important hub on a European scale. However, the most intensive flows link it with other Polish regions. Moreover the specificity of the Śląskie Voivodeship means that any effects of the European Green Deal will be particularly strongly felt, as it is among the regions experiencing the greatest negative impact of this policy on the economy and labour market.

Keywords: decarbonisation, European Green Deal, flows, international competitiveness of regions, low-carbon transition, position with(in) the space of flows, space of flows, Śląskie Voivodeship

Julia Wójcik [j.wojcik@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Barbara Szejgiec-Kolenda [b.szejgiec@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Konrad Czapiewski [konrad@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warszawa, Poland
Tomasz Komornicki [t.komorn@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warszawa, Poland
Miguel Ángel Almazán-Gómez [malmazan@unizar.es], Department of Economic Analysis, University of Zaragoza, Gran Vía 2, 50005, Zaragoza: Spain / AgriFood Institute of Aragon, IA2, Calle de Miguel Servet, 177, 50013, Zaragoza: Spain

Citation

APA: Wójcik, J., Szejgiec-Kolenda, B., Czapiewski, K., Komornicki, T., & Almazán-Gómez, M. (2022). The place of Śląskie Voivodeship (Poland) in the greening space of flows. Europa XXI, 42, 31-65. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.6
MLA: Wójcik, Julia, et al. "The place of Śląskie Voivodeship (Poland) in the greening space of flows". Europa XXI, vol. 42, 2022, pp. 31-65. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.6
Chicago: Wójcik, Julia, Szejgiec-Kolenda, Barbara, Czapiewski, Konrad, Komornicki, Tomasz, and Almazán-Gómez, Miguel Ángel. "The place of Śląskie Voivodeship (Poland) in the greening space of flows". Europa XXI 42 (2022): 31-65. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.6
Harvard: Wójcik, J., Szejgiec-Kolenda, B., Czapiewski, K., Komornicki, T., & Almazán-Gómez, M. 2022. "The place of Śląskie Voivodeship (Poland) in the greening space of flows". Europa XXI, vol. 42, pp. 31-65. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.6

Disproportions in socio-economic development of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship with particular emphasis on post-mining areas

Dorota Rynio, Alicja Zakrzewska-Półtorak

Europa XXI (2022) vol. 42, pp. 67-79 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.2

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Abstract

The Lower Silesian Voivodeship is a region with relatively high social and economic disproportion between its territorial units. This diversification is due to many factors, including specialization, long-term mono-branching and ties with traditional sectors characterised by capital intensity, huge involvement of natural resources, low efficiency and negative environmental effects. The aim of the study is to determine what are the disproportions in the socio-economic development of Lower Silesia and whether the activation of post-mining areas in this region requires support as part of integrated just transition planning.

Keywords: business services, investment, Just Transition, post-mining areas, region, socio-economic transition

Dorota Rynio [dorota.rynio@ue.wroc.pl], Wroclaw University of Economics and Business Komandorska 118/120 53-345 Wrocław: Poland
Alicja Zakrzewska-Półtorak [alicja.zakrzewska-poltorak@ue.wroc.pl], Wroclaw University of Economics and Business Komandorska 118/120 53-345 Wrocław: Poland

Citation

APA: Rynio, D., & Zakrzewska-Półtorak, A. (2022). Disproportions in socio-economic development of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship with particular emphasis on post-mining areas. Europa XXI, 42, 67-79. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.2
MLA: Rynio, Dorota, and Zakrzewska-Półtorak, Alicja. "Disproportions in socio-economic development of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship with particular emphasis on post-mining areas". Europa XXI, vol. 42, 2022, pp. 67-79. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.2
Chicago: Rynio, Dorota, and Zakrzewska-Półtorak, Alicja. "Disproportions in socio-economic development of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship with particular emphasis on post-mining areas". Europa XXI 42 (2022): 67-79. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.2
Harvard: Rynio, D., & Zakrzewska-Półtorak, A. 2022. "Disproportions in socio-economic development of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship with particular emphasis on post-mining areas". Europa XXI, vol. 42, pp. 67-79. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.2

The involvement of stakeholders in the decarbonization process in the coal region of Northern Hungary

Zoltán Bujdosó, Anikó Bordás, Balázs Hegyi, Zsuzsa Piskóti-Kovács, Csaba Vaszkó, Richárd Nagy, Gyöngyi Kovács

Europa XXI (2022) vol. 42, pp. 81-93 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.1

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Abstract

This article deals with the analysis of Hungary's still-existing coal region (Northern Hungary), including the future of coal mining and energy production. Within the interpretive tradition of social research, we approached the problem and explored the role and significance of the Mátra Power Plant in the country and the coal region. The results show that there has been widespread involvement in the field of coal removal, Just Transition and that it is important for decision-makers and energy policy stakeholders in the country and the region to have a say. It also helps to shape discourses and bring out alternative views.

Keywords: coal region, North Hungary, Just Transition, stakeholder involvement

Zoltán Bujdosó [bujdoso.zoltan@uni-mate.hu], Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Institute of Rural Development and Sustainable EconomyMátrai út 36, Gyöngyös: Hungary
Anikó Bordás [bordas.aniko@uni-eszterhazy.hu], Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Project DepartmentEszterházy tér 1., 3300 Eger: Hungary
Balázs Hegyi [hegyi.balazs@uni-eszterhazy.hu], Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Coal Commission SecretariatLeányka utca 6., 3300 Eger: Hungary
Zsuzsa Piskóti-Kovács [piskoti.zsuzsa@uni-eszterhazy.hu], Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Coal Commission SecretariatLeányka utca 6., 3300 Eger: Hungary
Csaba Vaszkó [vaszkocs@gmail.com], Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Coal Commission SecretariatLeányka utca 6., 3300 Eger: Hungary
Richárd Nagy [nagy.richard@uni-eszterhazy.hu], Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Innoregion Knowledge CentreLeányka utca 6., 3300 Eger: Hungary
Gyöngyi Kovács [kovacs.gyongyi@uni-mate.hu], Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Institute of Rural Development and Sustainable EconomyMátrai út 36, Gyöngyös: Hungary

Citation

APA: Bujdosó, Z., Bordás, A., Hegyi, B., Piskóti-Kovács, Z., Vaszkó, C., Nagy, R., & Kovács, G. (2022). The involvement of stakeholders in the decarbonization process in the coal region of Northern Hungary. Europa XXI, 42, 81-93. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.1
MLA: Bujdosó, Zoltán, et al. "The involvement of stakeholders in the decarbonization process in the coal region of Northern Hungary". Europa XXI, vol. 42, 2022, pp. 81-93. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.1
Chicago: Bujdosó, Zoltán, Bordás, Anikó, Hegyi, Balázs, Piskóti-Kovács, Zsuzsa, Vaszkó, Csaba, Nagy, Richárd, and Kovács, Gyöngyi. "The involvement of stakeholders in the decarbonization process in the coal region of Northern Hungary". Europa XXI 42 (2022): 81-93. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.1
Harvard: Bujdosó, Z., Bordás, A., Hegyi, B., Piskóti-Kovács, Z., Vaszkó, C., Nagy, R., & Kovács, G. 2022. "The involvement of stakeholders in the decarbonization process in the coal region of Northern Hungary". Europa XXI, vol. 42, pp. 81-93. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.1

Transformation of the Lower Silesian Coal Basin – a failed experiment

Piotr Hajduga, Stanisław Korenik, Alicja Kozak

Europa XXI (2022) vol. 42, pp. 95-108 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.3

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Abstract

The old 19th century industrial districts and basins played an essential role in shaping the growth processes in individual national economies of European countries as early as the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. The formation of the foundations of the new economy, in which knowledge begins to play the fundamental role, and the innovation closely related to it, at a fairly rapid pace, causes these areas to lose their importance. A large population with a predominance of traditional education, outdated and often worn-out infrastructure are the sources of their socio-economic problems. This situation also applied to the Lower Silesian Coal Basin, which operated in the vicinity of Wałbrzych and Nowa Ruda. The basin was characterised not only by obsolete and decapitalised components of fixed assets but also to its disadvantage was the peripheral location and an underdeveloped production and technological chain. In addition, the lack of an effective connection with the country (which, unfortunately, still applies today) and the borderland, as well as the location in a mountainous area, negatively affected the economic efficiency of this area. Even in the 1980s, a failed attempt was made to save the hard coal mining sector by merging the mines and the costly construction of the Copernicus collecting shaft. Along with the political and systemic transformation, a decision was automatically made to close the basin, and this process was euphemistically called restructuring. But in practice, it was reduced to the closure of mines and most of the coking plants (one is still operating today), which resulted in the collapse of many companies that operated for the mining industry. In mid-1998, coal mining was stopped, and in the following year, the mines located in the Lower Silesia Coal Basin were finally closed. It was the first closure of such a large area of economic activity in the realities of Polish economy. The activities that were undertaken during the closure of the basin were characterised by low effectiveness, fragmentation, and high variability of activities (even chaotic). After the closure, the area was left to fend for itself with overwhelming problems across all socio-economic dimensions. Currently, after more than thirty years, when characterising the effects of these activities, they should be clearly assessed as even tragic, in terms of society (enormous unemployment, pauperisation, community regression – this is where old coal pits were created on a massive scale), environment (secondary emission and spontaneous combustion of heaps, rising water levels or the penetration of gases from workings into basements of buildings) and economy (low entrepreneurship rate, an outflow of people to other cities, low level of productivity of the subregion, etc.). In recent years, positive phenomena have been observed in the region. However, both the pace and the scale are small, and, more importantly, their location is punctual and primarily concerns Wałbrzych. They are endogenous in nature, which indicates that with external help, it is possible to reverse negative trends. The aim of this paper is to assess the transformations that took place in the Wałbrzych subregion and were triggered by the liquidation of the Lower Silesian Coal Basin.

Keywords: closure, coal basin, restructuring, Wałbrzyski subregion

Piotr Hajduga [piotr.hajduga@ue.wroc.pl], Department of Spatial Economy and Local Government Administration, Faculty of Economics and Finance, Wroclaw University of Economics and Business Komandorska 118/120, 53-345 Wrocław: Poland
Stanisław Korenik [stanislaw.korenik@ue.wroc.pl], Department of Spatial Economy and Local Government Administration, Faculty of Economics and Finance, Wroclaw University of Economics and Business Komandorska 118/120, 53-345 Wrocław: Poland
Alicja Kozak [alicja.kozak@ue.wroc.pl], Department of International Business, Faculty of Economics and Finance, Wroclaw University of Economics and Business Komandorska 118/120, 53-345 Wrocław: Poland

Citation

APA: Hajduga, P., Korenik, S., & Kozak, A. (2022). Transformation of the Lower Silesian Coal Basin – a failed experiment. Europa XXI, 42, 95-108. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.3
MLA: Hajduga, Piotr, et al. "Transformation of the Lower Silesian Coal Basin – a failed experiment". Europa XXI, vol. 42, 2022, pp. 95-108. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.3
Chicago: Hajduga, Piotr, Korenik, Stanisław, and Kozak, Alicja. "Transformation of the Lower Silesian Coal Basin – a failed experiment". Europa XXI 42 (2022): 95-108. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.3
Harvard: Hajduga, P., Korenik, S., & Kozak, A. 2022. "Transformation of the Lower Silesian Coal Basin – a failed experiment". Europa XXI, vol. 42, pp. 95-108. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.3

The role of Latvia’s maritime spatial planning in promoting the European Green Deal

Leila Neimane, Armands Puzulis

Europa XXI (2022) vol. 42, pp. 109-128 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.4

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Abstract

In an era of dynamic maritime spatial planning movement development, this paper offers insight into the relationship between Latvia’s national Maritime Spatial Plan 2030 and the European Green Deal. The paper analyses what this might signify concerning the implementation and subsequent assessment of the plan by exploring the role of the maritime spatial plan in Latvia’s planning system. Beginning with a brief history of how the national plan came to be, the paper then describes and evaluates the position of the maritime spatial plan within Latvia’s planning framework before examining the connection between the maritime spatial plan and the Green Deal, identifying contact points. This paper offers a starting framework for studying how closely maritime spatial planning is related to and capable of supporting ─ or at the very least taking into account ─ the goals of the Green Deal. The conclusion is that implementation of maritime spatial planning is rooted in the state planning system, the interconnection among policy documents, and the specifics of the maritime spatial plan itself.

Keywords: European Green Deal, Latvian planning system, maritime spatial planning, Sustainable Development Goals

Leila Neimane [leila.neimane@lu.lv], University of Latvia, Faculty of Law, Institute of Legal Science Raina blvd. 19, Riga, LV-1589: Latvia
Armands Puzulis [armands.puzulis@arei.lv], Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics Struktoru street 14, Riga, LV-1039: Latvia

Citation

APA: Neimane, L., & Puzulis, A. (2022). The role of Latvia’s maritime spatial planning in promoting the European Green Deal. Europa XXI, 42, 109-128. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.4
MLA: Neimane, Leila, and Puzulis, Armands. "The role of Latvia’s maritime spatial planning in promoting the European Green Deal". Europa XXI, vol. 42, 2022, pp. 109-128. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.4
Chicago: Neimane, Leila, and Puzulis, Armands. "The role of Latvia’s maritime spatial planning in promoting the European Green Deal". Europa XXI 42 (2022): 109-128. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.4
Harvard: Neimane, L., & Puzulis, A. 2022. "The role of Latvia’s maritime spatial planning in promoting the European Green Deal". Europa XXI, vol. 42, pp. 109-128. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.4

Offshore wind energy potential in Europe: a forecast of installed capacities and costs

Tomasz Laskowicz

Europa XXI (2022) vol. 42, pp. 129-148 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.5

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Abstract

Offshore wind installation targets of EU Member States were considered. The analysis of the national plans showed that EU target can be exceeded, provided the appropriate resources are committed: offshore space, capital and supply chain. Spatial plans were analyzed and the need for the number of installed turbines was determined. The capital needs to cover the costs of investment outlays were analyzed. A projection for the number of wind turbines installed in Europe up to 2030 was presented. The analysis identified how the resources committed to the targets will contribute to: the generation of electricity, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and contribution to improving Europe's energy independence.

Keywords: decarbonization, energy, energy transformation, European Union, Green Deal, maritime spatial plan, offshore wind

Tomasz Laskowicz [tomasz.laskowicz@phdstud.ug.edu.pl], Faculty of Economics, University of Gdańsk, Armii Krajowej 119, 81-124 Sopot: Poland

Citation

APA: Laskowicz, T. (2022). Offshore wind energy potential in Europe: a forecast of installed capacities and costs. Europa XXI, 42, 129-148. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.5
MLA: Laskowicz, Tomasz. "Offshore wind energy potential in Europe: a forecast of installed capacities and costs". Europa XXI, vol. 42, 2022, pp. 129-148. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.5
Chicago: Laskowicz, Tomasz. "Offshore wind energy potential in Europe: a forecast of installed capacities and costs". Europa XXI 42 (2022): 129-148. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.5
Harvard: Laskowicz, T. 2022. "Offshore wind energy potential in Europe: a forecast of installed capacities and costs". Europa XXI, vol. 42, pp. 129-148. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2022.42.5