Europa XXI (2023) vol. 45

Territorial consequences of war in Ukraine: migration, planning, reconstruction

Articles

‘Zeitenwende’: The Retrenchment – or not – of ‘Territorialism’?

Andreas Faludi

Europa XXI (2023) vol. 45, pp. 1 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.1

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Abstract

‘Zeitenwende’ as announced by German Chancellor Olaf Scholz in relation to Ukraine suggests the retrenchment of ‘territorialism’. I discuss this with a focus on Poland. Western Ukraine has after all been Eastern Poland until becoming part of the Ukrainian SSR in 1939. Enlarged with Crimea, the same SSR declared independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 at a time when Poland was aiming to join the EU and NATO. Now, Poland is a conduit of assistance, military or otherwise to Ukraine. In due course she may need to reconsider her aspiration, as good as fulfilled now, for being a consolidated nation-state. The alternative in 1919 was something like the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of old. That model may become relevant once more. If so, then this would be like my alternative – neo-medievalism – to a territorialism under which nation-states are the exclusive building blocks of the international order. Neo-medievalism stands for political action, including defence, no longer being the exclusive province of the territorial nation-state. If so, then thinking about the state as if it were the owner on behalf of the nation of its territory needs to adapt.

Keywords: neo-medievalism, Poland, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, territorialism, Ukraine

Andreas Faludi [afaludi@outlook.com], Delft University of Technology, Oostplantsoen 114, 2611 WL Delft: The Netherlands (Professor Emeritus)

Citation

APA: Faludi, A. (2023). ‘Zeitenwende’: The Retrenchment – or not – of ‘Territorialism’?. Europa XXI, 45, 1. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.1
MLA: Faludi, Andreas. "‘Zeitenwende’: The Retrenchment – or not – of ‘Territorialism’?". Europa XXI, vol. 45, 2023, pp. 1. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.1
Chicago: Faludi, Andreas. "‘Zeitenwende’: The Retrenchment – or not – of ‘Territorialism’?". Europa XXI 45 (2023): 1. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.1
Harvard: Faludi, A. 2023. "‘Zeitenwende’: The Retrenchment – or not – of ‘Territorialism’?". Europa XXI, vol. 45, pp. 1. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.1

The cross-border effects of the Ukrainian refugees’ crisis. Evidence from the Romanian side

Nicoleta Damian, Bianca Mitrică, Radu Sageata, Irena Roznoviețchi

Europa XXI (2023) vol. 45, pp. 2 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.2

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Abstract

The issue of refugees pertains to the permanent elements of historical reflection on the mass movement of people or the phenomenon of migration. The military aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine not only ignited a hot spot on the conflict map of Europe, but also triggered a cascade of events difficult to anticipate. A direct result of the conflict has been the mass exodus of Ukrainians and a promise of temporary protection by the European Union to those fleeing the conflict. According to the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), on August 17, 2023, over 4.2 million Ukrainians crossed into Romania at the crossing points between Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova. The Ukrainian crisis offers the opportunity to take a closer look at the governments themselves. The Ukrainian citizens who remained in Romania received help both from the Romanian Government, and from the civil society (i.e., various NGOs, civilians, volunteers); from the first days of the invasion of Ukraine, Romanian society reacted swiftly. The study aims to emphasize the great importance of raising awareness and building solidarity and support in the receiving country in order to counterbalance, alleviate and eliminate the effects of the Ukrainian refugees’ crisis with respect to three main aspects: (1) the reloaded in situ effects, that is, the leading role of existing Romanian and, respectively, Ukrainian ethnic communities on both sides of the border in the prompt organization of humanitarian support for Ukrainian refugees; (2) the repetitive effects on the dynamics, such as the refugee flows and their territorial and time dynamic; (3) the long-term effects, i.e., the need to integrate the refugees in different fields of daily life.

Keywords: measures and actions, policies, Romania, types of cross-border effects, Ukrainian refugees

Nicoleta Damian [nicoleta_damian2002@yahoo.com], Institute of Geography, Romanian Academy, Environmental Geography and GIS Department 12 Dimitrie Racoviţă Str., Sector 2, RO-023993 Bucharest: Romania
Bianca Mitrică [biancadumitrescu78@yahoo.com], Institute of Geography, Romanian Academy, Human Geography and Regional Development Department 12 Dimitrie Racoviţă Str., Sector 2, RO-023993 Bucharest: Romania
Radu Sageata [rsageata@gmail.com], Institute of Geography Romanian Academy 12 Dimitrie Racoviţă street, Bucharest-2, RO-023993, Bucharest: Romania
Irena Roznoviețchi [mocanitai@yahoo.com], Institute of Geography, Romanian Academy, Human Geography and Regional Development Department 12 Dimitrie Racoviţă Str., Sector 2, RO-023993 Bucharest: Romania

Citation

APA: Damian, N., Mitrică, B., Sageata, R., & Roznoviețchi, I. (2023). The cross-border effects of the Ukrainian refugees’ crisis. Evidence from the Romanian side. Europa XXI, 45, 2. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.2
MLA: Damian, Nicoleta, et al. "The cross-border effects of the Ukrainian refugees’ crisis. Evidence from the Romanian side". Europa XXI, vol. 45, 2023, pp. 2. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.2
Chicago: Damian, Nicoleta, Mitrică, Bianca, Sageata, Radu, and Roznoviețchi, Irena. "The cross-border effects of the Ukrainian refugees’ crisis. Evidence from the Romanian side". Europa XXI 45 (2023): 2. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.2
Harvard: Damian, N., Mitrică, B., Sageata, R., & Roznoviețchi, I. 2023. "The cross-border effects of the Ukrainian refugees’ crisis. Evidence from the Romanian side". Europa XXI, vol. 45, pp. 2. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.2

Regional Policy in Ukraine – Importance for Post-War Reconstruction

Zbigniew Mogiła, John Bradley, Janusz Zaleski

Europa XXI (2023) vol. 45, pp. 3 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.3

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Abstract

Our analysis sets out a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of regional development programmes in Ukraine. Specifically, we investigate to what extent the Ukrainian approach to regional development policy resembles the successful approach taken by the EU programmes of Cohesion Policy in the post-2004 New Member States. In addition, drawing on initial versions of Ukrainian national and regional models, we illustrate how the bottom-up regional approach initiated in Ukraine needs to be co-ordinated with a top-down national perspective that identifies and distinguishes national development objectives from specifically regional objectives. Such methodologies, suitably adapted, will be required during post-war reconstruction.

Keywords: macroeconomic models, regional development, regional strategies

Zbigniew Mogiła [zbigniew.mogila@uwr.edu.pl], University of Wroclaw, Poland
John Bradley [john.bradley@iol.ie], Economic Modelling and Development Strategies, Ireland
Janusz Zaleski [janusz.zaleski@pwr.edu.pl], Committee for Spatial Economy and Regional Planning, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

Citation

APA: Mogiła, Z., Bradley, J., & Zaleski, J. (2023). Regional Policy in Ukraine – Importance for Post-War Reconstruction. Europa XXI, 45, 3. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.3
MLA: Mogiła, Zbigniew, et al. "Regional Policy in Ukraine – Importance for Post-War Reconstruction". Europa XXI, vol. 45, 2023, pp. 3. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.3
Chicago: Mogiła, Zbigniew, Bradley, John, and Zaleski, Janusz. "Regional Policy in Ukraine – Importance for Post-War Reconstruction". Europa XXI 45 (2023): 3. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.3
Harvard: Mogiła, Z., Bradley, J., & Zaleski, J. 2023. "Regional Policy in Ukraine – Importance for Post-War Reconstruction". Europa XXI, vol. 45, pp. 3. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.3

The effects of internal displacement on the host border regions (case study of the Lviv Region of Ukraine)

Roman Lozynskyy, Viktoriya Pantyley, Andriy Zubyk, Hanna Smaliychuk

Europa XXI (2023) vol. 45, pp. 4 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.4

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Abstract

The study objective is to analyse the effect of the flow of internally displaced persons (IDPs) on the development of the Lviv Oblast – the largest region of Ukraine bordering on the EU. The article was based on available statistical data (most statistical data in Ukraine under martial law is not made public), data from sociological research of international organisations, and other official public sources of information. The study results suggest that the Lviv Oblast has become the main Ukrainian transit region on the route of refugees from Ukraine across the border, as well as one of the main oblasts accepting IDPs. At least 5 million people have passed the oblast in transit, and the number of IDPs reached its maximum in the period May-June 2022. Most of the people arrived in the city of Lviv, other large cities, as well as recreation and tourist centres. IDPs have had a positive effect on the sectors of housing construction and tourism in the oblast, and contributed to an increase in the budget income of separate territorial hromadas. Approximately 230 enterprises have also been relocated to the oblast. Most IDPs are planning or expect to return to their former place of residence, although with each month of war duration, the share of people integrating with local communities and planning to permanently remain in the territory of the Lviv Oblast increases. In spatial terms, the flow of IDPs considerably exceeded the level of urbanisation of the oblast, and accelerated the development of the Lviv urban agglomeration. In the future perspective it may contribute to an increase in territorial disproportions between large cities in the oblast, with better developed hromadas around Lviv, mountain and pre-montane towns on the one hand, and depressive hromadas in the east and south-east of the oblast on the other.

Keywords: humanitarian crisis, internally displaced persons, Lviv, Lviv Oblast, Russian military aggression, Ukraine

Roman Lozynskyy [roman.lozynskyy@lnu.edu.ua], Department of Geography of Ukraine, Lviv National Ivan Franko University 41 Doroshenka Str., Lviv, 79000: Ukraine
Viktoriya Pantyley [viktoriya.pantyley@mail.umcs.pl], Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin 2cd Kraśnicka Str., Lublin, 20-718: Poland
Andriy Zubyk [andriy.zubyk@lnu.edu.ua], Department of Geography of Ukraine, Lviv National Ivan Franko University 41 Doroshenka Str., Lviv, 79000: Ukraine
Hanna Smaliychuk [hanna.smaliichuk@lnu.edu.ua], Department of Geography of Ukraine, Lviv National Ivan Franko University 41 Doroshenka Str., Lviv, 79000: Ukraine

Citation

APA: Lozynskyy, R., Pantyley, V., Zubyk, A., & Smaliychuk, H. (2023). The effects of internal displacement on the host border regions (case study of the Lviv Region of Ukraine). Europa XXI, 45, 4. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.4
MLA: Lozynskyy, Roman, et al. "The effects of internal displacement on the host border regions (case study of the Lviv Region of Ukraine)". Europa XXI, vol. 45, 2023, pp. 4. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.4
Chicago: Lozynskyy, Roman, Pantyley, Viktoriya, Zubyk, Andriy, and Smaliychuk, Hanna. "The effects of internal displacement on the host border regions (case study of the Lviv Region of Ukraine)". Europa XXI 45 (2023): 4. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.4
Harvard: Lozynskyy, R., Pantyley, V., Zubyk, A., & Smaliychuk, H. 2023. "The effects of internal displacement on the host border regions (case study of the Lviv Region of Ukraine)". Europa XXI, vol. 45, pp. 4. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.4

Directions of change in the spatial policies of Polish border municipalities during the first year of war in Ukraine, 2022

Przemysław Śleszyński, Maciej J. Nowak

Europa XXI (2023) vol. 45, pp. 5 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.5

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Abstract

Local-level spatial policies in Poland are determined by diverse social, economic, political and environmental factors. On the one hand, they result from the specific characteristics of individual areas. On the other, however, supra-local factors are found to be playing an increasingly important role. These can include trends related to the Europeanisation of spatial planning and the associated promoted institutional changes and changes in planning practices. However, from February 2022 onwards, certain European countries in particular have seen another important factor has come into play, i.e. the war in Ukraine. It thus seems legitimate to verify how the fundamental change in the geopolitical situation, i.e. the location in the immediate vicinity of a victim state (Ukraine), an aggressor state (Russia) and an aggressor-friendly state (Belarus), along with a number of related consequences (including a change in the nature of border capacity, a sense of insecurity, potential changes in investment policy, etc.) determine the directions local spatial policies have been taking. The main purpose of the article is to diagnose the current planning situation of units of local-government administration along Poland’s eastern border by reference to two groups of issues: (1) concerning the state of progress of planning work, as well as (2) the impact of the outbreak of war in Ukraine on changes in spatial policy (perforce ancillary, given the small number of responses received). The source of the data were annual surveys of the Ministry of Development and Technology and Statistics Poland regarding the advancement of planning work at the level of the Polish gmina, as well and a survey addressed to all 77 such units of local administration located by the border. Particular reference was made to the application of spatial-planning instruments at the local level (studies of spatial planning conditions and directions, local spatial development plans and decisions on development conditions – with the analyses concerning the period before the major July 2023 amendment of spatial planning law). Particular attention was paid to the frequency of enactment of individual acts, with this being related to both earlier periods and trends in Poland as a whole. The research finds that the relatively high level of activity shown by some of the surveyed gminas in amending/updating spatial planning studies and spatial / physical development plans may not be related to the outbreak of war in Ukraine. The Polish spatial-planning system in fact lacks instruments by which to react flexibly and ensure the integration of development policies (as is particularly necessary when a crisis erupts).

Keywords: local government, Polish border areas, public safety, Schengen border, spatial policy, war

Przemysław Śleszyński [psleszyn@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warszawa, Poland
Maciej J. Nowak [maciej.nowak@zut.edu.pl], Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny w Szczecinie Wydział Ekonomiczny

Citation

APA: Śleszyński, P., & Nowak, M. (2023). Directions of change in the spatial policies of Polish border municipalities during the first year of war in Ukraine, 2022. Europa XXI, 45, 5. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.5
MLA: Śleszyński, Przemysław, and Nowak, Maciej J.. "Directions of change in the spatial policies of Polish border municipalities during the first year of war in Ukraine, 2022". Europa XXI, vol. 45, 2023, pp. 5. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.5
Chicago: Śleszyński, Przemysław, and Nowak, Maciej J.. "Directions of change in the spatial policies of Polish border municipalities during the first year of war in Ukraine, 2022". Europa XXI 45 (2023): 5. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.5
Harvard: Śleszyński, P., & Nowak, M. 2023. "Directions of change in the spatial policies of Polish border municipalities during the first year of war in Ukraine, 2022". Europa XXI, vol. 45, pp. 5. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2023.45.5

War-Torn Territories and Society: Migration Processes, Cases, Contexts of Ukraine

Daria Malchykova, Ihor Pylypenko

Europa XXI (2023) vol. 45, pp. 6

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Abstract

Large-scale population displacement is one of the key consequences of the Russian-Ukrainian war. It has been determined that Ukraine has abnormal demographic patterns at all levels. The aim of the research was to identify the general features of new patterns in the demographic space of Ukraine at different levels and to present case studies of migration processes in the de-occupied communities of Kherson region. An analysis of demographic history and the dramatic changes of the last ten years have revealed a restructuring of the demographic space that has changed the dominant trends of previous periods. The authors differentiate the regions of Ukraine by population concentration, which demonstrates a catastrophic drop in the demographic weight of the regions that became the battlefield. At a national level, there have been catastrophic demographic losses due to refugees, deaths, and natural decline. At a regional level, there has been a significant shift in population distribution, resulting in the rapid growth of the relative demographic importance of Ukraine's western and central regions. There have been predictable and unexpected migration cases at the local level, where emotional and psychological factors such as strengthening identity and regional belonging have become more essential alongside rational choices and decisions.

Keywords: migration, demographic space, internally displaced persons, community, Russian-Ukrainian war

Daria Malchykova [darina1378@gmail.com], Department of Geography and Ecology, Kherson State University Kherson State University, 27 Universytets’ka St., Kherson, 73003: Ukraine
Ihor Pylypenko, Department of Geography and Ecology, Kherson State University Kherson State University, 27 Universytets’ka St., Kherson, 73003: Ukraine

Citation

APA: Malchykova, D., & Pylypenko, I. (2023). War-Torn Territories and Society: Migration Processes, Cases, Contexts of Ukraine. Europa XXI, 45, 6. https://doi.org/
MLA: Malchykova, Daria, and Pylypenko, Ihor. "War-Torn Territories and Society: Migration Processes, Cases, Contexts of Ukraine". Europa XXI, vol. 45, 2023, pp. 6. https://doi.org/
Chicago: Malchykova, Daria, and Pylypenko, Ihor. "War-Torn Territories and Society: Migration Processes, Cases, Contexts of Ukraine". Europa XXI 45 (2023): 6. https://doi.org/
Harvard: Malchykova, D., & Pylypenko, I. 2023. "War-Torn Territories and Society: Migration Processes, Cases, Contexts of Ukraine". Europa XXI, vol. 45, pp. 6. https://doi.org/